How Par Value Affects Start-Up Businesses
Many entrepreneurs are unclear about the “par value” of a stock, and what par value they should establish for their new corporation. Generally, par value (also known as nominal or face value) is the minimum price per share that shares can be issued for, in order to be fully paid. In the old days, the par value of a common stock was equal to the amount invested and represented the initial capital of the company; but today the vast majority of stocks are issued with an extremely low par value, or none at all.
A share of stock cannot be issued, sold or traded for less than the par value. Therefore, incorporators often opt for such a low – or no – par value to reduce the amount of money a company founder must invest in exchange for shares of ownership in a start-up corporation. Regardless of the par value, the company’s board of directors retain the right to sell shares in the company at a higher price.
Some online incorporation services recommend setting par value at zero, however this is not necessarily the best approach and can have unintended consequences. Many corporations want to assign a par value, so that an actual investment (money or services) is necessary in order to acquire ownership in the company. This way, the corporation can generate capital and recoup start-up costs.
Some states restrict the number of shares which may be offered at zero par value, or charge additional taxes or filing fees based on the number of zero par value shares. For example, Delaware corporations can issue up to 1,500 shares at zero par value before additional filing fees kick in.
Zero par value can pose problems at tax time in some jurisdictions. In Delaware, for example, there are two methods of calculating franchise taxes corporations must pay annually. In one example, the same corporation would owe annual tax in excess of $75,000 if the stock had zero par value, as opposed to annual taxes of just $350 with a nominal par value of $.01 per share.
Consider establishing a par value that is above zero and below $.01 per share to minimize the initial investment required from the founders and to protect against potential tax consequences associated with zero par value stock. Some also recommend issuing founder shares at a multiple of whatever par value is, to avoid future complications if the corporation needs to execute a stock split that results in a new share price that is below par value.
Par value has no bearing on the market value of a stock, but is an important decision in the formation of your new enterprise. Consultation with an experienced business or tax lawyer can help you ensure your ultimate decision serves your company well into the future, in terms of raising capital, lowering taxes and retaining control as a shareholder in your corporation.